Typhoid is a bacterial infection that can spread throughout the body. It is caused by drinking water contaminated with Salmonella Typhi, or by eating food that has been in contact with contaminated water.
Typhoid fever is extremely contagious. An infected individual can pass the bacteria out of their body in their faeces when they have a bowel movement or, less commonly, when they urinate. The Typhoid Vaccination can prevent against any potential infections. If someone else eats food or drinks water that has been contaminated with a small amount of infected faeces or urine, they are at risk of contracting typhoid fever.
The primary indication of typhoid infection includes:
a fever that gradually rises before settling at around 39–40C (103–104F) stomach pain and discomfort a dull, aching headache loss of appetite
If it is Typhoid, these symptoms will continue to get worse. As the condition progresses, the risk of developing possibly fatal complications increases.
Typhoid is a risk throughout the world, but is more likely to occur in areas where there is excessively poor sanitation and personal/food hygiene. In particular, risk areas include:
Africa Central America the Indian subcontinent the Middle East South America South and Southeast Asia
Around three-quarters of people who are exposed to cholera bacteria do not develop any symptoms. However, these people can contaminate water by passing stools (faeces) that contain bacteria into water, or pass on the disease through poor food hygiene. If you are travelling to parts of the world known to be affected by tyhpoid, following some basic precautions should prevent you from contracting the disease:
maintain good personal hygiene only drink water from a bottle that has been properly sealed or carbonated. Bottled, carbonated water is safer than uncarbonated water. do not buy ice cream, ice cubes or fruit juices from street vendors do not eat raw vegetables, peeled fruit, shellfish or salads
Get vaccinated for typhoid fever if you are travelling to any part of the world where exposure to the disease might be possible. Two forms of the vaccination are available; typhoid vaccination by injection, or typhoid vaccination by capsule (oral). Express Travel Clinic provides both forms of the typhoid vaccination.